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Detecting early-warning signals of concern in plant populations with a Citizen Science network. Are threatened and other priority species for conservation performing worse?

María B. García | José L. Silva | Pablo Tejero | Iker Pardo. Journal of Applied Ecology
DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.13890

1. Long-term monitoring of biodiversity is a fundamental part of environmental management, and Citizen Science (CS) approaches are increasing their contribution to such endeavour. CS plant monitoring programmes, however, almost exclusively report on the species presence, which can be used to detect changes in distribution or occupancy areas, but not to assess their local extinction risk. To anticipate the collapse of local populations, we need information on population sizes, trends, temporal fluctuations and threats. This is particularly important in the case of priority species (threatened, endangered and those that need special protection). 2. Here we describe the working protocol of the ‘Adopt a plant’ programme, a collaborative network that is currently monitoring 332 populations of 204 plant taxa (threatened, of community interest, common, rare and habitat indicators) across a heterogeneous landscape in NE Spain. Coordinated by scientists, participants estimate population sizes, record disturbances and follow scientifically rigorous sampling methods to track plant abundances year after year in fixed representative areas within populations. Two simple indices are estimated from that information: the overall trend (mean population abundance change, as percentage; PAch) and temporal fluctuations (standard deviation of annual changes; PAchsd). 3. The potential of this ongoing high-quality dataset is demonstrated through the analysis of 242 populations monitored over 3–10 years. Stability is the dominant trend (mean PAch: +0.14%), with priority species having similar PAch and lower PAchsd than non-priority ones. Regardless of the priority status, small populations performed worse than large ones. Only 8% of studied populations faced direct human threats. 4. Synthesis and applications. The ‘Adopt a plant’ collaborative monitoring programme was launched in NE of Spain to produce standardized indices of abundance change and other early-warning signals of concern or risk of population collapse. Such information is crucial to report the conservation status of threatened plants, and plants of Community interest (Habitats Directive). By analysing hundreds of populations, we found that priority plants experienced few threats and did not perform worse than non-priority ones. This unexpected finding evidences the importance of gathering massive demographic information to refine conservation priorities and to achieve a more comprehensive assessment of flora's vulnerability.

Mobirise

A critical comparison of integral projection and matrix projection models for demographic analysis. 

Doak DF; E Waddle; RE Langendorf; AM Louthan; NI Chardon; RR Dibner; DA Keinath; E Lombardi; C Steenbock; RK Shriver; C Linares; MB Garcia; WC Funk; SW Fitzpatrick; WF Morris; and ML Peterson. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ecm.1447

Structured demographic models are among the most common and useful tools in population biology. However, the introduction of integral projection models (IPMs) has caused a profound shift in the way many demographic models are conceptualized. Some researchers have argued that IPMs, by explicitly representing demographic processes as continuous functions of state variables such as size, are more statistically efficient, biologically realistic, and accurate than classic matrix projection models, calling into question the usefulness of the many studies based on matrix models. Here, we evaluate how IPMs and matrix models differ, as well as the extent to which these differences matter for estimation of key model outputs, including population growth rates, sensitivity patterns, and life spans. First, we detail the steps in constructing and using each type of model. Second, we present a review of published demographic models, concentrating on size-based studies, which shows significant overlap in the way IPMs and matrix models are constructed and analyzed. Third, to assess the impact of various modeling decisions on demographic predictions, we ran a series of simulations based on size-based demographic data sets for five biologically diverse species. We found little evidence that discrete vital rate estimation is less accurate than continuous functions across a wide range of sample sizes or size classes (equivalently bin numbers or mesh points). Most model outputs quickly converged with modest class numbers (≥10), regardless of most other modeling decisions. Another surprising result was that the most commonly used method to discretize growth rates for IPM analyses can introduce substantial error into model outputs. Finally, we show that empirical sample sizes generally matter more than modeling approach for the accuracy of demographic outputs. Based on these results, we provide specific recommendations to those constructing and evaluating structured population models. Both our literature review and simulations question the treatment of IPMs as a clearly distinct modeling approach or one that is inherently more accurate than classic matrix models. Importantly, this suggests that matrix models, representing the vast majority of past demographic analyses available for comparative and conservation work, continue to be useful and important sources of demographic information.

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Phenotypic plasticity masks range-wide genetic differentiation for vegetative but not reproductive traits in a short-lived plant

Villellas J, ... MB Garcia, and YM Buckley. Ecology Letters 10.1111/ele.13858 (IF: 8.665, Ecology: 6/169; 2019). Autorea: https://doi.org/10.22541/au.160975628.85388662/v1

Structured demographic models are among the most common and useful tools in population biology. However, the introduction of integral projection models (IPMs) has caused a profound shift in the way many demographic models are conceptualized. Some researchers have argued that IPMs, by explicitly representing demographic processes as continuous functions of state variables such as size, are more statistically efficient, biologically realistic, and accurate than classic matrix projection models, calling into question the usefulness of the many studies based on matrix models. Here, we evaluate how IPMs and matrix models differ, as well as the extent to which these differences matter for estimation of key model outputs, including population growth rates, sensitivity patterns, and life spans. First, we detail the steps in constructing and using each type of model. Second, we present a review of published demographic models, concentrating on size-based studies, which shows significant overlap in the way IPMs and matrix models are constructed and analyzed. Third, to assess the impact of various modeling decisions on demographic predictions, we ran a series of simulations based on size-based demographic data sets for five biologically diverse species. We found little evidence that discrete vital rate estimation is less accurate than continuous functions across a wide range of sample sizes or size classes (equivalently bin numbers or mesh points). Most model outputs quickly converged with modest class numbers (≥10), regardless of most other modeling decisions. Another surprising result was that the most commonly used method to discretize growth rates for IPM analyses can introduce substantial error into model outputs. Finally, we show that empirical sample sizes generally matter more than modeling approach for the accuracy of demographic outputs. Based on these results, we provide specific recommendations to those constructing and evaluating structured population models. Both our literature review and simulations question the treatment of IPMs as a clearly distinct modeling approach or one that is inherently more accurate than classic matrix models. Importantly, this suggests that matrix models, representing the vast majority of past demographic analyses available for comparative and conservation work, continue to be useful and important sources of demographic information.

Publicaciones incluidas en el JCR

< 2021
Domingo, D, MT Lamelas, & MB García. Caracterización de cambios estructurales en la vegetación y su relación con la severidad del fuego mediante datos LiDAR multi-temporales. Ecosistemas

García MB1, JL Silva, P Tejero, I Pardo. 2021. Detecting early warning-signals of concern in plant populations with a Citizen Science network. Are threatened and priority species for conservation performing worse?. Journal of Applied Ecology. DOI:10.1111/1365-2664.13890 (IF: 5.84; Biod Cons: 4/59; 2019)

Villellas J, J Ehrlén, EE Crone, AM Csergo, MB Garcia, A-L Laine, DA Roach, R Salguero-Gómez, GM Wardle, DZ Childs, BD Elderd, A Finn, S Munné-Bosch, B Bachelot, J Bódis, A Bucharova, CM Caruso, J Catford, M Coghill, A Compagnoni, RP Duncan, JM Dwyer, A Ferguson, L Fraser, E Griffoul, R Groenteman, LN Hamre, A Helm, R Kelly, L Laanisto, M Lonati, Z Munzbergová, P Nuche, SL Olsen, A Oprea, M Pärtel, WK Petry, S Ramula, PU Rasmussen, SR Enri, A Roeder, C Roscher, C Schultz, O Skarpaas, AL Smith, JP Töpper, PA Vesk, GE Vose, E Wandrag, A Wingler and YM Buckley. Phenotypic plasticity masks range-wide genetic differentiation for vegetative but not reproductive traits in a short-lived plant. Ecology Letters 10.1111/ele.13858 (IF: 8.665, Ecology: 6/169; 2019). 

Doak DF; E Waddle; RE Langendorf; AM Louthan; NI Chardon; RR Dibner; DA Keinath; E Lombardi; C Steenbock; RK Shriver; C Linares; MB Garcia; WC Funk; SW Fitzpatrick; WF Morris; and ML Peterson. 2021. A critical comparison of integral projection and matrix projection models for demographic analysis. Ecological Monographs. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecm.1447 

Doak, D. F., M. B. Garcia, C. Linares, S. W. Fitzpatrick, W. C. Funk, M. L. Peterson, E. Waddle, R. K. Shriver, and W. F. Morris. 2021. Testing Demographic Methods Using Field Studies of Five Dissimilar Species. Bull Ecol Soc Am 102(2):e01870. https://doi.org/10.1002/bes2.1870

Smith, Annabel L., Trevor R. Hodkinson, Jesus Villellas, Jane A. Catford, Anna Mária Csergő, Simone P. Blomberg, Elizabeth E. Crone, Johan Ehrlén, Maria B. Garcia, Anna-Liisa Laine, Deborah A. Roach, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Glenda Wardle, Dylan Z. Childs, Bret D. Elderd, Alain Finn, Sergi Munné-Bosch, Maude E.A. Baudraz, Judit Bódis, Francis Q. Brearley, Anna Bucharova, Christina M. Caruso, Richard P. Duncan, John M. Dwyer, Ben Gooden, Ronny Groenteman, Liv Norunn Hamre, Aveliina Helm, Ruth Kelly, Lauri Laanisto, Michele Lonati, Joslin L. Moore, Melanie Morales, Siri Lie Olsen, Meelis Pärtel, William K. Petry, Satu Ramula, Pil U. Rasmussen, Simone Ravetto Enri, Anna Roeder, Christiane Roscher, Marjo Saastamoinen, Ayco J. M. Tack, Joachim Paul Töpper, Gregory E. Vose, Elizabeth M. Wandrag, Astrid Wingler and Yvonne M. Buckley. Global gene flow releases plants from environmental constraints on genetic diversity. Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences 117: 4218-4227. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1915848117

Cotado A, Garcia MB, Munné-Bosch S. 2020. Physiological seed dormancy increases at high altitude in Pyrenean saxifrage (Saxifraga longifolia Lapeyr.). Environmental and Experimental Botany 171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2019.103929

García MB, J Arroyo, J Ehrlén. 2020 The climatic change. Learning from past survivors and present outliers. Environmental and Experimental Botany 170, Article 103971 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2019.103931

Sherman D., JP Dahlgren, J Ehrlén, MB García. 2019. Sex and the cost of reproduction through the life course of an extremely long-lived herb. Oecologia 191:369-375. doi: 10.1007/s00442-019-04491-0

García MB, P Errea, D Gómez, M Pizarro. 2019. Winners and losers of landscape changes over the last sixty years in one of the oldest and Southernmost National Parks of the European Alpine region: Ordesa and Monte Perdido. Geographical Research Letters 45: 123-141. http://doi.org/10.18172/cig.3711

Bascompte*, J, MB García*, R Ortega, E Rezende, S Pironon. 2019. Mutualistic interactions reshuffle the effects of climate change on plants across the tree of life. Science Advances 5: eaav2539. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav2539

Villellas, J., García, M. B., & Morris, W. F. (2019). Geographic location, local environment, and individual size mediate the effects of climate warming and neighbors on a benefactor plant. Oecologia, 189(1), 243-253. http://doi.org/c5rf
García, M. B., Silva, J. L., Tejero, P., Pardo, I., & Gómez, D. (2019). Tracking the long-term dynamics of plant diversity in Northeast Spain with a network of volunteers and rangers. Regional Environmental Change, 19(2), 391-401. http://doi.org/c5rc
Pironon, S., Villellas, J., Thuiller, W., Eckhart, V. M., Geber, M. A., Moeller, D. A., & García, M. B. (2018). The ‘Hutchinsonian niche’as an assemblage of demographic niches: implications for species geographic ranges. Ecography, 41(7), 1103-1113. http://doi.org/c5q5
Canelles, Q., Saura-Mas, S., Brotons, L., García, M. B., Lloret, F., Villellas, J., & Morris, W. F. (2018). Environmental stress effects on reproduction and sexual dimorphism in the gynodioecious species Silene acaulis. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 146, 27-33. http://doi.org/gcz2sh
Villellas, J., & García, M. B. (2018). Life‐history trade‐offs vary with resource availability across the geographic range of a widespread plant. Plant Biology, 20(3), 483-489. http://doi.org/c5q8
Pironon, S., Papuga, G., Villellas, J., Angert, A. L., García, M. B., & Thompson, J. D. (2017). Geographic variation in genetic and demographic performance: new insights from an old biogeographical paradigm. Biological Reviews, 92(4), 1877-1909. http://doi.org/c5q7
Villellas, J., & García, M. B. (2017). Intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of recruitment across the distribution range of a seed-dimorphic herb. Plant ecology, 218(5), 529-539. http://doi.org/f95trp
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Publicaciones (1993-2016)
Ilves, A., Metsare, M., Seliškar, A., García, M. B., Vassiliou, L., Pierce, S., ... & Kull, T. (2016). Genetic diversity patterns of the orchid Anacamptis pyramidalis at the edges of its distribution range. Plant systematics and evolution, 302(9), 1227-1238. http://doi.org/f86x6f
Munné-Bosch, S., Cotado, A., Morales, M., Fleta-Soriano, E., Villellas, J., & Garcia, M. B. (2016). Adaptation of the long-lived monocarpic perennial Saxifraga longifolia to high altitude. Plant physiology, 172(2), 765-775. http://doi.org/c5qv
Villellas, J., Cardós, J. L., & García, M. B. (2016, June). Contrasting population dynamics in the boreo-alpine Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae) at its southern distribution limit. In Annales Botanici Fennici (Vol. 53, No. 3–4, pp. 193-205). Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board. http://doi.org/f9crdx
Lehtilä, K., Dahlgren, J. P., Garcia, M. B., Leimu, R., Syrjänen, K., & Ehrlén, J. (2016). Forest succession and population viability of grassland plants: long repayment of extinction debt in Primula veris. Oecologia, 181(1), 125-135. 
Berjano, R., Villellas, J., García, M. B., & Terrab, A. (2015). Phylogeography reveals latitudinal population structure in the common herb Plantago coronopus. Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, 179(4), 618-634. http://doi.org/f7xnrt
Pardo, I., Doak, D. F., García-González, R., Gómez, D., & García, M. B. (2015). Long-term response of plant communities to herbivore exclusion at high elevation grasslands. Biodiversity and Conservation, 24(12), 3033-3047. http://doi.org/c5qs
Villellas, J., Doak, D. F., García, M. B., & Morris, W. F. (2015). Demographic compensation among populations: what is it, how does it arise and what are its implications?. Ecology letters, 18(11), 1139-1152. http://doi.org/f3pmkm
Silva, J. L., Mejías, J. A., & García, M. B. (2015). Demographic vulnerability in cliff-dwelling Sonchus species endemic to the western Mediterranean. Basic and applied ecology, 16(4), 316-324. http://doi.org/f7b6p9
Valiente‐Banuet, A., Aizen, M. A., Alcántara, J. M., Arroyo, J., Cocucci, A., Galetti, M., ... & Medel, R. (2015). Beyond species loss: the extinction of ecological interactions in a changing world. Functional Ecology, 29(3), 299-307. http://doi.org/f658d7
Pironon, S., Villellas, J., Morris, W. F., Doak, D. F., & García, M. B. (2015). Do geographic, climatic or historical ranges differentiate the performance of central versus peripheral populations?. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 24(6), 611-620. http://doi.org/f3mzrv
Villellas, J., Berjano, R., Terrab, A., & García, M. B. (2014). Divergence between phenotypic and genetic variation within populations of a common herb across Europe. Ecosphere, 5(5), 1-14. http://doi.org/f2ztm4
Valdés, A., García, D., García, M. B., & Ehrlén, J. (2014). Contrasting effects of different landscape characteristics on population growth of a perennial forest herb. Ecography, 37(3), 230-240. http://doi.org/f2z35k
Jones, O. R., Scheuerlein, A., Salguero-Gómez, R., Camarda, C. G., Schaible, R., Casper, B. B., ... & Quintana-Ascencio, P. F. (2014). Diversity of ageing across the tree of life. Nature, 505(7482), 169. http://doi.org/f2zvqv
Barrio, I. C., Bueno, C. G., Nagy, L., Palacio, S., Grau, O., Munilla, I., ... & Lara-Romero, C. (2013). Alpine ecology in the Iberian Peninsula: What do we know, and what do we need to learn?. Mountain Research and Development, 33(4), 437-443. http://doi.org/c5qp
Pardo, I., Camarero, J. J., Gutiérrez, E., & García, M. B. (2013). Uncoupled changes in tree cover and field layer vegetation at two Pyrenean treeline ecotones over 11 years. Plant Ecology & Diversity, 6(3-4), 355-364. http://doi.org/c5qn
Hansen, C. F., García, M. B., & Ehlers, B. K. (2013). Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in P lantago coronopus. Journal of evolutionary biology, 26(5), 993-1002. http://doi.org/f4tqpj
Villellas, J., & García, M. B. (2013). The role of the tolerance–fecundity trade‐off in maintaining intraspecific seed trait variation in a widespread dimorphic herb. Plant Biology, 15(5), 899-909. http://doi.org/f47bpm
Morales, M., Oñate, M., García, M. B., & Munné‐Bosch, S. (2013). Photo‐oxidative stress markers reveal absence of physiological deterioration with ageing in Borderea pyrenaica, an extraordinarily long‐lived herb. Journal of Ecology, 101(3), 555-565. http://doi.org/f4v4hw
Villellas, J., Morris, W. F., & García, M. B. (2013). Variation in stochastic demography between and within central and peripheral regions in a widespread short‐lived herb. Ecology, 94(6), 1378-1388. http://doi.org/f43sdt
Villellas, J., Ehrlén, J., Olesen, J. M., Braza, R., & García, M. B. (2013). Plant performance in central and northern peripheral populations of the widespread Plantago coronopus. Ecography, 36(2), 136-145. http://doi.org/f2zpws
Pardo, I., Pata, M. P., Gómez, D., & García, M. B. (2013). A novel method to handle the effect of uneven sampling effort in biodiversity databases. PloS one, 8(1), e52786. http://doi.org/f4h23t
García, M. B., Espadaler, X., & Olesen, J. M. (2012). Extreme reproduction and survival of a true cliffhanger: the endangered plant Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae). PloS one, 7(9), e44657. http://doi.org/f36879
Pisanu, S., Farris, E., Filigheddu, R., & García, M. B. (2012). Demographic effects of large, introduced herbivores on a long-lived endemic plant. Plant ecology, 213(10), 1543-1553. 
Oñate, M., García, M. B., & Munné-Bosch, S. (2012). Age and sex-related changes in cytokinins, auxins and abscisic acid in a centenarian relict herbaceous perennial. Planta, 235(2), 349-358. http://doi.org/c62s52
Garcia, M. B., Dahlgren, J. P., & Ehrlén, J. (2011). No evidence of senescence in a 300‐year‐old mountain herb. Journal of Ecology, 99(6), 1424-1430. http://doi.org/dmcmqp
Dahlgren, J. P., García, M. B., & Ehrlén, J. (2011). Nonlinear relationships between vital rates and state variables in demographic models. Ecology, 92(5), 1181-1187. http://doi.org/ctgt7c
Braza, R., & García, M. B. (2011). Spreading recruitment over time to cope with environmental variability. Plant Ecology, 212(2), 283-292. http://doi.org/db6k3g
Csergő, A. M., Molnár, E., & García, M. B. (2011). Dynamics of isolated Saponaria bellidifolia Sm. populations at northern range periphery. Population ecology, 53(2), 393-403. http://doi.org/fhb2nt
Braza, R., Arroyo, J., & García, M. B. (2010). Natural variation of fecundity components in a widespread plant with dimorphic seeds. Acta Oecologica, 36(5), 471-476. http://doi.org/dsh6nw
Garcia, M. B., Goni, D., & Guzman, D. (2010). Living at the edge: Local versus positional factors in the long‐term population dynamics of an endangered orchid. Conservation Biology, 24(5), 1219-1229. http://doi.org/d76f85
García, M. B., Pico, F. X., & Ehrlén, J. (2008). Life span correlates with population dynamics in perennial herbaceous plants. American Journal of Botany, 95(2), 258-262. http://doi.org/cxxktq
García, M. B. (2008). Life history and population size variability in a relict plant. Different routes towards long‐term persistence. Diversity and Distributions, 14(1), 106-113. http://doi.org/dq7257
Buston, P. M., & García, M. B. (2007). An extraordinary life span estimate for the clown anemonefish Amphiprion percula. Journal of Fish Biology, 70(6), 1710-1719. http://doi.org/cqzmst
Lehtilä, K., Syrjänen, K., Leimu, R., Garcia, M. B., & Ehrlén, J. (2006). Habitat change and demography of Primula veris: identification of management targets. Conservation Biology, 20(3), 833-843. http://doi.org/c5qj
Ehrlén, J., Syrjänen, K., Leimu, R., Begona Garcia, M., & Lehtilä, K. (2005). Land use and population growth of Primula veris: an experimental demographic approach. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42(2), 317-326. 
Manzaneda, A. J., Sperens, U., & García, M. B. (2005). Effects of microsite disturbances and herbivory on seedling performance in the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Plant Ecology, 179(1), 73-82. http://doi.org/dxn83d
García, M. B. (2003). Demographic viability of a relict population of the critically endangered plant Borderea chouardii. Conservation Biology, 17(6), 1672-1680. http://doi.org/bdc46p
García, M. B. (2003). Sex allocation in a long-lived monocarpic plant. Plant Biology, 5(02), 203-209. http://doi.org/b7w32c
Herrera, C. M., Medrano, M., Rey, P. J., Sánchez-Lafuente, A. M., García, M. B., Guitián, J., & Manzaneda, A. J. (2002). Interaction of pollinators and herbivores on plant fitness suggests a pathway for correlated evolution of mutualism-and antagonism-related traits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(26), 16823-16828. http://doi.org/cjdp4r
García, M. B., & Ehrlén, J. (2002). Reproductive effort and herbivory timing in a perennial herb: fitness components at the individual and population levels. American Journal of Botany, 89(8), 1295-1302. http://doi.org/dxz4bb
Herrera, C. M., Cerdá, X., Garcia, M. B., Guitián, J., Medrano, M., Rey, P. J., & Sánchez‐Lafuente, A. M. (2002). Floral integration, phenotypic covariance structure and pollinator variation in bumblebee‐pollinated Helleborus foetidus. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 15(1), 108-121. http://doi.org/dbw74j
Garcı́a, M. B., Guzmán, D., & Goñi, D. (2002). An evaluation of the status of five threatened plant species in the Pyrenees. Biological Conservation, 103(2), 151-161. http://doi.org/ccpd2z
Hogan, K. P., Garcia, M. B., Cheeseman, J. M., & Loveless, M. D. (1998). Inflorescence photosynthesis and investment in reproduction in the dioecious species Aciphylla glaucescens (Apiaceae). New Zealand Journal of Botany, 36(4), 653-660. http://doi.org/cnzvzz
García, M. B., & Antor, R. J. (1995). Age and size structure in populations of a long-lived dioecious geophyte: Borderea pyrenaica (Dioscoreaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 156(2), 236-243. http://doi.org/fphbvd
García, M. B., & Antor, R. J. (1995). Sex ratio and sexual dimorphism in the dioecious Borderea pyrenaica (Dioscoreaceae). Oecologia, 101(1), 59-67. http://doi.org/d7q8wb
Garcia, M. B., Antor, R. J., & Espadaler, X. (1995). Ant pollination of the palaeoendemic dioeciousBorderea pyrenaica (Dioscoreaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 198(1-2), 17-27. http://doi.org/fg87ht
Antor, R. J., & García, M. B. (1995). A new mite-plant association: mites living amidst the adhesive traps of a carnivorous plant. Oecologia, 101(1), 51-54. http://doi.org/bw3qsp
Antor, R. J., & Garcia, M. B. (1994). Prey capture by a carnivorous plant with hanging adhesive traps: Pinguicula longifolia. American Midland Naturalist, 128-135. http://doi.org/ft2jxr
García, M. B., Antor, R. J., & Villar, L. (1994). Phenomorphology and reproductive biology of Pinguicula longifolia Ramond ex DC. subsp. longifolia (Lentibulariaceae), a carnivorous endemic plant of the Pyrenees. Acta botanica gallica, 141(3), 343-349. http://doi.org/c5p9
Garcia, M. B., Antor, R. J., & Villar, L. (1993). Reproductive biology of Petrocoptis crassifolia Rouy (Caryophyllaceae), a chasmophilous endemic plant of the Central Pyrenes. Botanica helvetica, 103(2), 133-140.
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